CVD and ALD in the Bi-Ti-O system

Mikael Schuisky
Abstract & Cover

Bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12, is one of the bismuth based layered ferroelectric materials that is a candidate for replacing the lead based ferroelectric materials in for instance non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories (FRAM). This is due to the fact that the bismuth based ferroelectrics consists of pseudo perovskite units sandwiched in between bismuth oxide layers, which gives them a better fatigue nature. In this thesis thin films of Bi4Ti3O12 have been deposited by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) using the metal iodides, BiI3 and TiI4 as precursors. Films grown on MgO(001) substrates were found to grow epitaxially. The electrical properties were determined for films grown on Pt-coated silicon and good properties such as a high dielectric constant (ε) of 200, low tan δ of 0.018, a remnant polarisation (Pr ) of 5.3 μC/cm2 and coercive field (Ec) as high as 150 kV/cm were obtained. Thin films in the Bi-Ti-O system were also deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using metalorganic precursors. In addition to the ternary bismuth titanates, films in the binary oxide systems i.e. bismuth oxides and titanium oxides were deposited. Epitaxial TiO2 films were deposited both by CVD and ALD using TiI4 as precursor. The rutile films deposited by ALD were found to grow epitaxially down to a temperature of at least 375 °C on α–Al2O3(0 1 2) substrates. The TiO2 ALD process was also studied in-situ by QCM. Different bismuth oxides were deposited by halide-CVD using BiI3 as precursor on MgO(0 0 1) and SrTiO3(0 0 1) substrates and the results were summarised in an experimental CVD stability diagram. The Bi2O2.33 phase was found to grow epitaxially on both substrates. Keywords: Halide-CVD, ALD, Bismuth titanate, Bi4Ti3O12, Titanium oxide, TiO2, Bismuth oxide, Bi2O2.33, Epitaxy, QCM. 

Source of Information
Mats Boman
Uppsala University, Department of Chemistry
(Uppsala, Sweden)
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