Chemical Vapour Deposition of Undoped and Oxygen Doped Copper (I) Nitride.

Anna Fallberg
Abstract & Cover

In science and technology there is a steadily increased demand of new materials and new materials production processes since they create new application areas as well as improved production technology and economy. This thesis includes development and studies of a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process for growth of thin films of the metastable material copper nitride, Cu3N, which is a semiconductor and decomposes at around 300 °C. The combination of these properties opens for a variety of applications ranging from solar cells to sensor and information technology. The CVD process developed is based on a metal-organic compound copper hexafluoroacetylacetonate, Cu(hfac)2, ammonia and water and was working at about 300 °C and 5 Ton. It was found that a small amount of water in the vapour increased the growth rate considerably and that the phase content, film texture, chemical composition and morphology were strongly dependent on the deposition conditions. In-situ oxygen doping during the CVD of Cu3N to an amount of 9 atomic % could also be accomplished by increasing the water concentration in the vapour. Oxygen doping increases the band gap of the material as well as the electrical resistivity and changes the stability. The crystal structure of Cu3N is very open and contains several sites which can be used for doping. Different spectroscopic techniques like X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy were used to identify the oxygen doping site(s) in Cu3N. Besides the properties, the oxygen doping also affected the morphology and texture of the films. By combining thin layers of different materials several properties can be optimized at the same time. It has been demonstrated in this thesis that multilayers, composed of alternating Cu3N and Cu2O layers, i.e. a metastable and a stable material, could be grown by CVD technique. However, the stacking sequence affected the texture, morphology and chemical composition. The interfaces between the different layers were sharp and no signs of decomposition of the initially deposited metastable Cu3N layer could be detected. 
Keywords: Chemical vapour deposition, copper hexafluoroacetylacetonate, copper (I) nitride, copper (I) oxide, multilayers, oxygen doping

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Uppsala University
(Uppsala, Sweden)
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