ALD BOOKS

Atomic Layer Epitaxy
By: T. Suntola (Author), M. Simpson (Author)
Publication Year: 1989

This book provides a detailed study of the Atomic Layer Epitaxy technique (ALE), its development, current and potential applications. The rapid development of coating technologies over the last 25 years has been instrumental in generating interest and expertise in thin films of materials, and indeed the market for thin film coatings is currently £3 billion with projected annual growth of 20 to 30% [1]. ALE is typical of thin-film processes in that problems in the processing or preparation of good quality epitaxial films have been overcome, resulting in better performance, novel applications of previously unsuitable materials, and the development of new devices. Many materials exhibit interesting and novel properties when prepared as thin films and doped. Vapour-deposited coatings and films are used extensively in the semiconductor and related industries for making single devices, integrated circuits, microwave hybrid integrated circuits, compact discs, solar reflective glazing, fibre optics, photo voltaic cells, sensors, displays, and many other products in general, everyday use. The ALE technique was developed by a research team led by Tuomo Suntola, working for Instrumentarium Oy in Finland. The key members of this team were lorma Antson, Arto Pakkala and Sven Lindfors. In 1977, the research team moved from Instrumentarium to Lohja Corporation, where they continued the development of ALE and were granted a patent in the same year. By 1980, the technique was sufficiently advanced that they were producing flat-screen electroluminescent displays based on a manganese-doped zinc sulphide layer. Publisher ‏: ‎ Springer; 1st edition (October 31, 1989), 280 pages.

This book provides a detailed study of the Atomic Layer Epitaxy technique (ALE), its development, current and potential applications. The rapid development of coating technologies over the last 25 years has been instrumental in generating interest and expertise in thin films of materials, and indeed the market for thin film coatings is currently £3 billion with projected annual growth of 20 to 30% [1]. ALE is typical of thin-film processes in that problems in the processing or preparation of good quality epitaxial films have been overcome, resulting in better performance, novel applications of previously unsuitable materials, and the development of new devices. Many materials exhibit interesting and novel properties when prepared as thin films and doped. Vapour-deposited coatings and films are used extensively in the semiconductor and related industries for making single devices, integrated circuits, microwave hybrid integrated circuits, compact discs, solar reflective glazing, fibre optics, photo voltaic cells, sensors, displays, and many other products in general, everyday use. The ALE technique was developed by a research team led by Tuomo Suntola, working for Instrumentarium Oy in Finland. The key members of this team were lorma Antson, Arto Pakkala and Sven Lindfors. In 1977, the research team moved from Instrumentarium to Lohja Corporation, where they continued the development of ALE and were granted a patent in the same year. By 1980, the technique was sufficiently advanced that they were producing flat-screen electroluminescent displays based on a manganese-doped zinc sulphide layer. Publisher ‏: ‎ Springer; 1st edition (October 31, 1989), 280 pages.
1989
Atomic Layer Deposition for Nanotechnology
By: Arthur Sherman (Author)
Publication Year: 2008

This monograph is the first text to review the subject of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) comprehensively. It not only covers its application to microelectronics, but also many important new and emerging applications in Nanotechnology. It is the culmination of over 10 years of pioneering research and development by the author. Not only does it cover thermal processes for ALD growth of nanometer thick films of semiconductors, oxides, metals and nitrides, but also reviews the formation of mixed and multilayer materials. Also, the newer radical enhanced technology is described and evaluated. Finally, the author presents some of the most recent applications of ALD to the emerging field of Nanotechnology. These include MEMS, solar cells, optical coatings, and organic/inorganic films among others. This treatment of an important and emerging technology will be particularly useful to engineers and scientists both in industry and universities. 
 

Publisher: Ivoryton Press; First edition (June 16, 2008), Hardcover: 256 pages

This monograph is the first text to review the subject of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) comprehensively. It not only covers its application to microelectronics, but also many important new and emerging applications in Nanotechnology. It is the culmination of over 10 years of pioneering research and development by the author. Not only does it cover thermal processes for ALD growth of nanometer thick films of semiconductors, oxides, metals and nitrides, but also reviews the formation of mixed and multilayer materials. Also, the newer radical enhanced technology is described and evaluated. Finally, the author presents some of the most recent applications of ALD to the emerging field of Nanotechnology. These include MEMS, solar cells, optical coatings, and organic/inorganic films among others. This treatment of an important and emerging technology will be particularly useful to engineers and scientists both in industry and universities.  Publisher: Ivoryton Press; First edition (June 16, 2008), Hardcover: 256 pages
2008
Thin-Film Organic Photonics: Molecular Layer Deposition and Applications
By: Tetsuzo Yoshimura (Author)
Publication Year: 2011

Among the many atomic/molecular assembling techniques used to develop artificial materials, molecular layer deposition (MLD) continues to receive special attention as the next-generation growth technique for organic thin-film materials used in photonics and electronics.

Thin-Film Organic Photonics: Molecular Layer Deposition and Applications describes how photonic/electronic properties of thin films can be improved through MLD, which enables precise control of atomic and molecular arrangements to construct a wire network that achieves "three-dimensional growth". MLD facilitates dot-by-dot—or molecule-by-molecule—growth of polymer and molecular wires, and that enhanced level of control creates numerous application possibilities.

Explores the wide range of MLD applications in solar energy and optics, as well as proposed uses in biomedical photonics

This book addresses the prospects for artificial materials with atomic/molecular-level tailored structures, especially those featuring MLD and conjugated polymers with multiple quantum dots (MQDs), or polymer MQDs. In particular, the author focuses on the application of artificial organic thin films to:

  • Photonics/electronics, particularly in optical interconnects used in computers
  • Optical switching and solar energy conversion systems
  • Bio/ medical photonics, such as photodynamic therapy
  • Organic photonic materials, devices, and integration processes

With its clear and concise presentation, this book demonstrates exactly how MLD enables electron wavefunction control, thereby improving material performance and generating new photonic/electronic phenomena.

Publisher ‏ : ‎ CRC Press; 1st edition (March 2, 2011), 370 pages.

Among the many atomic/molecular assembling techniques used to develop artificial materials, molecular layer deposition (MLD) continues to receive special attention as the next-generation growth technique for organic thin-film materials used in photonics and electronics.Thin-Film Organic Photonics: Molecular Layer Deposition and Applications describes how photonic/electronic properties of thin films can be improved through MLD, which enables precise control of atomic and molecular arrangements to construct a wire network that achieves "three-dimensional growth". MLD facilitates dot-by-dot—or molecule-by-molecule—growth of polymer and molecular wires, and that enhanced level of control creates numerous application possibilities.Explores the wide range of MLD applications in solar energy and optics, as well as proposed uses in biomedical photonicsThis book addresses the prospects for artificial materials with atomic/molecular-level tailored structures, especially those featuring MLD and conjugated polymers with multiple quantum dots (MQDs), or polymer MQDs. In particular, the author focuses on the application of artificial organic thin films to:Photonics/electronics, particularly in optical interconnects used in computersOptical switching and solar energy conversion systemsBio/ medical photonics, such as photodynamic therapyOrganic photonic materials, devices, and integration processesWith its clear and concise presentation, this book demonstrates exactly how MLD enables electron wavefunction control, thereby improving material performance and generating new photonic/electronic phenomena.Publisher ‏ : ‎ CRC Press; 1st edition (March 2, 2011), 370 pages.
2011
Formation of HgCdTe (MCT) by electrochemical atomic layer deposition: An investigation into bandgap engineering
By: Venkatram Venkatasamy (Author)
Publication Year: 2011

HgCdTe or Mer-Cad-Tel is the most widely used Infrared material. The present study describes the growth of MCT via Electrochemical ALD, using an automated electrochemical flow cell deposition system. Deposits were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and reflection absorption Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). As deposited films showed a strong (111) preferred orientation. Changes in deposit composition showed the expected trend in band gaps: the more Hg the lower the band gap, but with some significant deviations. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) studies, using an automated flow cell, indicated that some deposited Cd was stripping at potentials used to deposit Hg. In addition, redox replacement of deposited Cd for Hg was evident, a function of the greater stability of Hg than Cd. Publisher: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing (April 6, 2011), 116 pages.

HgCdTe or Mer-Cad-Tel is the most widely used Infrared material. The present study describes the growth of MCT via Electrochemical ALD, using an automated electrochemical flow cell deposition system. Deposits were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and reflection absorption Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). As deposited films showed a strong (111) preferred orientation. Changes in deposit composition showed the expected trend in band gaps: the more Hg the lower the band gap, but with some significant deviations. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) studies, using an automated flow cell, indicated that some deposited Cd was stripping at potentials used to deposit Hg. In addition, redox replacement of deposited Cd for Hg was evident, a function of the greater stability of Hg than Cd. Publisher: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing (April 6, 2011), 116 pages.
2011
Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanostructured Materials
By: Nicola Pinna (Editor), Mato Knez (Editor)
Publication Year: 2012

Atomic layer deposition, formerly called atomic layer epitaxy, was developed in the 1970s to meet the needs of producing high-quality, large-area fl at displays with perfect structure and process controllability. Nowadays, creating nanomaterials and producing nanostructures with structural perfection is an important goal for many applications in nanotechnology. As ALD is one of the important techniques which offers good control over the surface structures created, it is more and more in the focus of scientists. The book is structured in such a way to fi t both the need of the expert reader (due to the systematic presentation of the results at the forefront of the technique and their applications) and the ones of students and newcomers to the fi eld (through the first part detailing the basic aspects of the technique). Publisher: Wiley-VCH; 1st edition (September 19, 2012), 472 pages.

Atomic layer deposition, formerly called atomic layer epitaxy, was developed in the 1970s to meet the needs of producing high-quality, large-area fl at displays with perfect structure and process controllability. Nowadays, creating nanomaterials and producing nanostructures with structural perfection is an important goal for many applications in nanotechnology. As ALD is one of the important techniques which offers good control over the surface structures created, it is more and more in the focus of scientists. The book is structured in such a way to fi t both the need of the expert reader (due to the systematic presentation of the results at the forefront of the technique and their applications) and the ones of students and newcomers to the fi eld (through the first part detailing the basic aspects of the technique). Publisher: Wiley-VCH; 1st edition (September 19, 2012), 472 pages.
2012
Engineered Biomimicry: Chapter 16. Atomic Layer Deposition for Biomimicry
By: Lianbing Zhang (Author), Mato Knez (Author)
Publication Year: 2013

With the development of new synthetic procedures and technological processes, the interest in biomimicry has gathered rejuvenation in the past decades. One particularly interesting research method is the atomic layer deposition (ALD), which was established in various fields of technology as a vacuum-based chemical-processing technique and enabler for the deposition of extremely thin functional coatings. The benefits of this technology over similar techniques make it increasingly attractive for applications in biomimicry. In this chapter, short descriptions of the technology and its benefits and drawbacks are given. Subsequently, we summarize development in various research topics involving ALD and biomimicry. Publisher: Elsevier (May 24, 2013), 45 pages.

With the development of new synthetic procedures and technological processes, the interest in biomimicry has gathered rejuvenation in the past decades. One particularly interesting research method is the atomic layer deposition (ALD), which was established in various fields of technology as a vacuum-based chemical-processing technique and enabler for the deposition of extremely thin functional coatings. The benefits of this technology over similar techniques make it increasingly attractive for applications in biomimicry. In this chapter, short descriptions of the technology and its benefits and drawbacks are given. Subsequently, we summarize development in various research topics involving ALD and biomimicry. Publisher: Elsevier (May 24, 2013), 45 pages.
2013
Ceramic nanocomposites: 8. Ceramic ultra-thin coatings using atomic layer deposition
By: X. Liang (Author), D.M. King (Author), A.W. Weimer (Author)
Publication Year: 2013

Ultra-thin films can be coated on primary fine particles without significant aggregation by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor. Precursor doses can be delivered to the bed of particles sequentially and, in most cases, can be utilized at nearly 100% efficiency without precursor breakthrough and loss, with the assistance of an inline downstream mass spectrometer. A multitude of applications can be addressed in a competitive fashion using fine particles that have been surface-modified using ALD in scalable, high-throughput unit operations. Several examples of the applications of conformal ALD coatings have been discussed, including oxidation-resistant metals or ceramics, coatings that enable biomedical applications including tissue engineering, and corrosion-resistant particles for next-generation batteries, capacitors or fuel cells. It is expected that the technology of thin film coating by particle ALD will play a major role in the field of advanced materials. Publisher ‏ : ‎ Woodhead Publishing (July 31, 2013), 52 pages.

Ultra-thin films can be coated on primary fine particles without significant aggregation by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor. Precursor doses can be delivered to the bed of particles sequentially and, in most cases, can be utilized at nearly 100% efficiency without precursor breakthrough and loss, with the assistance of an inline downstream mass spectrometer. A multitude of applications can be addressed in a competitive fashion using fine particles that have been surface-modified using ALD in scalable, high-throughput unit operations. Several examples of the applications of conformal ALD coatings have been discussed, including oxidation-resistant metals or ceramics, coatings that enable biomedical applications including tissue engineering, and corrosion-resistant particles for next-generation batteries, capacitors or fuel cells. It is expected that the technology of thin film coating by particle ALD will play a major role in the field of advanced materials. Publisher ‏ : ‎ Woodhead Publishing (July 31, 2013), 52 pages.
2013
Atomic Layer Deposition: Principles, Characteristics, and Nanotechnology Applications
By: Tommi Kääriäinen (Author), David Cameron (Author), Marja-Leena Kääriäinen (Author), Arthur Sherman (Author)
Publication Year: 2013

Since the first edition was published in 2008, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) has emerged as a powerful, and sometimes preferred, deposition technology. The new edition of this groundbreaking monograph is the first text to review the subject of ALD comprehensively from a practical perspective. It covers ALD's application to microelectronics (MEMS) and nanotechnology; many important new and emerging applications; thermal processes for ALD growth of nanometer thick films of semiconductors, oxides, metals and nitrides; and the formation of organic and hybrid materials. Publisher: Wiley-Scrivener; 2nd edition (May 28, 2013), 272 pages.

Since the first edition was published in 2008, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) has emerged as a powerful, and sometimes preferred, deposition technology. The new edition of this groundbreaking monograph is the first text to review the subject of ALD comprehensively from a practical perspective. It covers ALD's application to microelectronics (MEMS) and nanotechnology; many important new and emerging applications; thermal processes for ALD growth of nanometer thick films of semiconductors, oxides, metals and nitrides; and the formation of organic and hybrid materials. Publisher: Wiley-Scrivener; 2nd edition (May 28, 2013), 272 pages.
2013
Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of III-Nitride Thin Films: Growth and Characterization
By: Çağla Özgit-Akgün (Author)
Publication Year: 2014

III-nitride compound semiconductors (AlN, GaN, InN) and their alloys have emerged as versatile and high-performance materials for a wide range of electronic and optoelectronic device applications. Although high quality III-nitride thin films can be grown at high temperatures (>1000 °C) with significant rates, deposition of these films on temperature-sensitive device layers and substrates necessitates the adaptation of low-temperature methods such as atomic layer deposition (ALD). When compared to other low-temperature thin film deposition techniques, ALD stands out with its self-limiting growth mechanism, which enables the deposition of highly uniform and conformal thin films with sub-angstrom thickness control. These unique characteristics make ALD a powerful method especially for depositing films on nanostructured templates, as well as preparing alloy thin films with well-defined compositions. This monograph reports on the development of low-temperature (≤200 °C) plasma-assisted ALD processes for III-nitrides, and presents detailed characterization results for the deposited thin films and fabricated nanostructures. Publisher: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing (March 17, 2014), 180 pages.

III-nitride compound semiconductors (AlN, GaN, InN) and their alloys have emerged as versatile and high-performance materials for a wide range of electronic and optoelectronic device applications. Although high quality III-nitride thin films can be grown at high temperatures (>1000 °C) with significant rates, deposition of these films on temperature-sensitive device layers and substrates necessitates the adaptation of low-temperature methods such as atomic layer deposition (ALD). When compared to other low-temperature thin film deposition techniques, ALD stands out with its self-limiting growth mechanism, which enables the deposition of highly uniform and conformal thin films with sub-angstrom thickness control. These unique characteristics make ALD a powerful method especially for depositing films on nanostructured templates, as well as preparing alloy thin films with well-defined compositions. This monograph reports on the development of low-temperature (≤200 °C) plasma-assisted ALD processes for III-nitrides, and presents detailed characterization results for the deposited thin films and fabricated nanostructures. Publisher: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing (March 17, 2014), 180 pages.
2014
Atomic Layer Deposition for Semiconductors
By: Cheol Seong Hwang (Ed.) and Cheol Seong Hwang
Publication Year: 2014

Offering thorough coverage of atomic layer deposition (ALD), this book moves from basic chemistry of ALD and modeling of processes to examine ALD in memory, logic devices and machines. Reviews history, operating principles and ALD processes for each device. Publisher : ‎ Springer; 2014th edition (October 18, 2013), 479 pages.

From the Back Cover: Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) was originally designed for depositing uniform passivation layers over a very large area  for display devices in the late 1970s. Only recently, in the 21st century, has the this technique become popular for high integrated semiconductor memory devices. This book discusses ALD for all modern semiconductor devices, the basic chemistry of ALD, and models of ALD processes. The book also details ALD for both mass produced memories and emerging memories. Each chapter of the book provides history, operating principles, and a full explanation of ALD processes for each device.

About the Author: Cheol Seong Hwang received M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, in 1989 and 1993, respectively. In 1993, he joined the Material Science and Engineering Laboratory at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow. He then joined Samsung Electronics Company, Ltd., as a Senior Researcher in 1994. In 1998, Dr. Hwang became a professor in the department of material science and engineering at Seoul National University. He has authored or coauthored more than 380 papers in international peer-reviewed scientific journals, which have been cited more than 7,500 times.Dr. Hwang was a recipient of the Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship Award, the 7th Presidential Young Scientist Award of the Korean government, and Faculty Excellent Award of Air Products, USA.

Offering thorough coverage of atomic layer deposition (ALD), this book moves from basic chemistry of ALD and modeling of processes to examine ALD in memory, logic devices and machines. Reviews history, operating principles and ALD processes for each device. Publisher : ‎ Springer; 2014th edition (October 18, 2013), 479 pages.From the Back Cover: Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) was originally designed for depositing uniform passivation layers over a very large area  for display devices in the late 1970s. Only recently, in the 21st century, has the this technique become popular for high integrated semiconductor memory devices. This book discusses ALD for all modern semiconductor devices, the basic chemistry of ALD, and models of ALD processes. The book also details ALD for both mass produced memories and emerging memories. Each chapter of the book provides history, operating principles, and a full explanation of ALD processes for each device.About the Author: Cheol Seong Hwang received M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, in 1989 and 1993, respectively. In 1993, he joined the Material Science and Engineering Laboratory at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow. He then joined Samsung Electronics Company, Ltd., as a Senior Researcher in 1994. In 1998, Dr. Hwang became a professor in the department of material science and engineering at Seoul National University. He has authored or coauthored more than 380 papers in international peer-reviewed scientific journals, which have been cited more than 7,500 times.Dr. Hwang was a recipient of the Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship Award, the 7th Presidential Young Scientist Award of the Korean government, and Faculty Excellent Award of Air Products, USA.
2014
Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films and Foils 3rd Edition
By: Charles Bishop (Author)
Publication Year: 2015

Vacuum Deposition onto Webs: Films and Foils, Third Edition, provides the latest information on vacuum deposition, the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll, thereby offering a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating than deposition onto single pieces or non-flexible surfaces such as glass. This technology has been used in industrial-scale applications for some time, including a wide range of metalized packaging. Its potential as a high-speed, scalable process has seen an increasing range of new products emerging that employ this cost-effective technology, including solar energy products that are moving from rigid panels onto cheaper and more versatile flexible substrates, flexible electronic circuit ‘boards’, and flexible displays.  In this third edition, all chapters are thoroughly revised with a significant amount of new information added, including newly developed barrier measurement techniques, improved in-vacuum monitoring technologies, and the latest developments in Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).

  • Provides the know-how to maximize productivity of vacuum coating systems
  • Thoroughly revised with a significant amount of new information added, including newly developed barrier measurement techniques, improved in-vacuum monitoring technologies, and the latest on Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)
  • Presents the latest information on vacuum deposition, the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll, thereby offering a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating
  • Enables engineers to specify systems more effectively and enhances dialogue between non-specialists and suppliers/engineers
  • Empowers those in rapidly expanding fields such as solar energy, display panels, and flexible electronics to unlock the potential of vacuum coating to transform their processes and products.

Publisher ‏ : ‎ William Andrew; 3rd edition (August 15, 2015),  519 pages

Vacuum Deposition onto Webs: Films and Foils, Third Edition, provides the latest information on vacuum deposition, the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll, thereby offering a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating than deposition onto single pieces or non-flexible surfaces such as glass. This technology has been used in industrial-scale applications for some time, including a wide range of metalized packaging. Its potential as a high-speed, scalable process has seen an increasing range of new products emerging that employ this cost-effective technology, including solar energy products that are moving from rigid panels onto cheaper and more versatile flexible substrates, flexible electronic circuit ‘boards’, and flexible displays.  In this third edition, all chapters are thoroughly revised with a significant amount of new information added, including newly developed barrier measurement techniques, improved in-vacuum monitoring technologies, and the latest developments in Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).Provides the know-how to maximize productivity of vacuum coating systemsThoroughly revised with a significant amount of new information added, including newly developed barrier measurement techniques, improved in-vacuum monitoring technologies, and the latest on Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)Presents the latest information on vacuum deposition, the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll, thereby offering a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coatingEnables engineers to specify systems more effectively and enhances dialogue between non-specialists and suppliers/engineersEmpowers those in rapidly expanding fields such as solar energy, display panels, and flexible electronics to unlock the potential of vacuum coating to transform their processes and products.Publisher ‏ : ‎ William Andrew; 3rd edition (August 15, 2015),  519 pages
2015
Recent Advances in Atomic Layer Deposition: For photonics device nanostructures
By: Saleem Muhammad Rizwan (Author)
Publication Year: 2015

Nano-optical devices are gaining rapid finding applications in many areas, from sensors to biomolecular devices based on thin films. The precise atomic scale film thickness control and uniformity is a backbone for maintaining propagating optical modes through the waveguide nanostructures fabricated by lithography. Lithography is the key technology that has driven the dynamic growth in the microelectronics and nanophotonics industries over the past three decades. Lithography together with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a powerful tool for the size reduction of accurately fabricated nanostructures and devices. Replicated Nanophotonic structures in different optical polymer materials are achieved by Nanoimprinting Lithography technology which are employed to augment cost-effective methods and aid for rapidly growing Nanoencapsulation technologies. The design and fabrication of such Resonant Waveguide Gratings (RWGs) for different applications are presented herein. The book also describes the thermo-optic coefficients of various organic and inorganic materials for athermal operation of RWGs over a wide range of temperatures and Polarization-independent subwavelength RWGs.

Publisher ‏ : ‎ Scholars' Press (March 24, 2015), Paperback ‏ : ‎ 204 pages

Nano-optical devices are gaining rapid finding applications in many areas, from sensors to biomolecular devices based on thin films. The precise atomic scale film thickness control and uniformity is a backbone for maintaining propagating optical modes through the waveguide nanostructures fabricated by lithography. Lithography is the key technology that has driven the dynamic growth in the microelectronics and nanophotonics industries over the past three decades. Lithography together with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a powerful tool for the size reduction of accurately fabricated nanostructures and devices. Replicated Nanophotonic structures in different optical polymer materials are achieved by Nanoimprinting Lithography technology which are employed to augment cost-effective methods and aid for rapidly growing Nanoencapsulation technologies. The design and fabrication of such Resonant Waveguide Gratings (RWGs) for different applications are presented herein. The book also describes the thermo-optic coefficients of various organic and inorganic materials for athermal operation of RWGs over a wide range of temperatures and Polarization-independent subwavelength RWGs.Publisher ‏ : ‎ Scholars' Press (March 24, 2015), Paperback ‏ : ‎ 204 pages
2015
Nanocoatings by Atomic Layer Deposition for Medical Applications
By: Haitham Mohammed Wadullah (Author), Muna Khethier Abbass (Author), Sami Abualnoun Ajeel (Author)
Publication Year: 2016

This book deals with synthesis of high quality nanocoatings thin films of alumina, titania, and alumina/titania multilayers with 25 nm and 50 nm thickness by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method on different implantable orthopedic alloys ( Co-28Cr-6Mo ASTM F75 and Stainless steel 316L), and then characterization the structure of thin films by advanced nanotechnology methods and facilities, study the localized corrosion resistance in SBF, determine the biocompatibility, and demonstrate the bioactivity. Publisher: Scholars' Press (January 15, 2016), 192 pages.

This book deals with synthesis of high quality nanocoatings thin films of alumina, titania, and alumina/titania multilayers with 25 nm and 50 nm thickness by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method on different implantable orthopedic alloys ( Co-28Cr-6Mo ASTM F75 and Stainless steel 316L), and then characterization the structure of thin films by advanced nanotechnology methods and facilities, study the localized corrosion resistance in SBF, determine the biocompatibility, and demonstrate the bioactivity. Publisher: Scholars' Press (January 15, 2016), 192 pages.
2016
Growth and Transport in Nanostructured Materials: Reactive Transport in PVD, CVD, and ALD
By: Angel Yanguas-Gil
Publication Year: 2017

This book will address the application of gas phase thin film methods, including techniques such as evaporation, sputtering, CVD, and ALD to the synthesis of materials on nanostructured and high aspect-ratio high surface area materials. We have chosen to introduce these topics and the different application fields from a chronological perspective: we start with the early concepts of step coverage and later conformality in semiconductor manufacturing, and how later on the range of application branched out to include others such as energy storage, catalysis, and more broadly nanomaterials synthesis.

The book will describe the ballistic and continuum descriptions of gas transport on nanostructured materials and then will move on to incorporate the impact of precursor-surface interaction. We will finally conclude approaching the subjects of feature shape evolution and the connection between nano and reactor scales and will briefly present different advanced algorithms that can be used to effectively compute particle transport, in some cases borrowing from other disciplines such as radiative heat transfer. The book gathers in a single place information scattered over thirty years of scientific research, including the most recent results in the field of Atomic Layer Deposition. Besides a mathematical description of the fundamentals of thin film growth in nanostructured materials, it includes analytic expressions and plots that can be used to predict the growth using gas phase synthesis methods in a number of ideal approximations. The focus on the fundamental aspects over particular processes will broaden the appeal and the shelf lifetime of this book. The reader of this book will gain a thorough understanding on the coating of high surface area and nanostructured materials using gas phase thin film deposition methods, including the limitations of each technique. Those coming from the theoretical side will gain the knowledge required to model the growth process, while those readers more interested in the process development will gain the theoretical understanding will be useful for process optimization.

Publisher: Springer; 1st ed. 2017 edition (November 30, 2016), 142 pages

This book will address the application of gas phase thin film methods, including techniques such as evaporation, sputtering, CVD, and ALD to the synthesis of materials on nanostructured and high aspect-ratio high surface area materials. We have chosen to introduce these topics and the different application fields from a chronological perspective: we start with the early concepts of step coverage and later conformality in semiconductor manufacturing, and how later on the range of application branched out to include others such as energy storage, catalysis, and more broadly nanomaterials synthesis.The book will describe the ballistic and continuum descriptions of gas transport on nanostructured materials and then will move on to incorporate the impact of precursor-surface interaction. We will finally conclude approaching the subjects of feature shape evolution and the connection between nano and reactor scales and will briefly present different advanced algorithms that can be used to effectively compute particle transport, in some cases borrowing from other disciplines such as radiative heat transfer. The book gathers in a single place information scattered over thirty years of scientific research, including the most recent results in the field of Atomic Layer Deposition. Besides a mathematical description of the fundamentals of thin film growth in nanostructured materials, it includes analytic expressions and plots that can be used to predict the growth using gas phase synthesis methods in a number of ideal approximations. The focus on the fundamental aspects over particular processes will broaden the appeal and the shelf lifetime of this book. The reader of this book will gain a thorough understanding on the coating of high surface area and nanostructured materials using gas phase thin film deposition methods, including the limitations of each technique. Those coming from the theoretical side will gain the knowledge required to model the growth process, while those readers more interested in the process development will gain the theoretical understanding will be useful for process optimization.Publisher: Springer; 1st ed. 2017 edition (November 30, 2016), 142 pages
2017
Atomic Layer Deposition of Zinc Based Transparent Conductive Oxides
By: Sanjeev Kumar Gurram (Author)
Publication Year: 2017

In this work Atomic Layer deposition of niobium and titanium doped ZnO based Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) coatings were developed. The fundamentals required for the deposition and doping of ZnO TCOs are discussed. The various opto-electronic properties of the niobium and titanium doped ZnO films were determined and compared. A model was proposed to explain the various changes in the opto-electronic properties of these films. Publisher: Fraunhofer Verlag (January 20, 2017), 202 pages.

In this work Atomic Layer deposition of niobium and titanium doped ZnO based Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) coatings were developed. The fundamentals required for the deposition and doping of ZnO TCOs are discussed. The various opto-electronic properties of the niobium and titanium doped ZnO films were determined and compared. A model was proposed to explain the various changes in the opto-electronic properties of these films. Publisher: Fraunhofer Verlag (January 20, 2017), 202 pages.
2017
Atomic Layer Deposition in Energy Conversion Applications
By: Prof. Julien Bachmann
Publication Year: 2017

Combining the two topics for the first time, this book begins with an introduction to the recent challenges in energy conversion devices from a materials preparation perspective and how they can be overcome by using atomic layer deposition (ALD). By bridging these subjects it helps ALD specialists to understand the requirements within the energy conversion field, and researchers in energy conversion to become acquainted with the opportunities offered by ALD. With its main focus on applications of ALD for photovoltaics, electrochemical energy storage, and photo- and electrochemical devices, this is important reading for materials scientists, surface chemists, electrochemists, electrotechnicians, physicists, and those working in the semiconductor industry. Publisher ‏ : ‎ Wiley-VCH; 1st edition (March 15, 2017), 312 pages.

About the Author: Julien Bachmann is Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg in Erlangen, Germany. He obtained his chemistry diploma from the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, and a PhD in inorganic chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston, USA. After an Alexander von Humboldt postdoctoral fellowship at the Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics in Halle, Germany, he was hired as a Junior Professor of Applied Physics at the University of Hamburg, Germany, before joining the faculty in Erlangen.

Combining the two topics for the first time, this book begins with an introduction to the recent challenges in energy conversion devices from a materials preparation perspective and how they can be overcome by using atomic layer deposition (ALD). By bridging these subjects it helps ALD specialists to understand the requirements within the energy conversion field, and researchers in energy conversion to become acquainted with the opportunities offered by ALD. With its main focus on applications of ALD for photovoltaics, electrochemical energy storage, and photo- and electrochemical devices, this is important reading for materials scientists, surface chemists, electrochemists, electrotechnicians, physicists, and those working in the semiconductor industry. Publisher ‏ : ‎ Wiley-VCH; 1st edition (March 15, 2017), 312 pages.About the Author: Julien Bachmann is Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg in Erlangen, Germany. He obtained his chemistry diploma from the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, and a PhD in inorganic chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston, USA. After an Alexander von Humboldt postdoctoral fellowship at the Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics in Halle, Germany, he was hired as a Junior Professor of Applied Physics at the University of Hamburg, Germany, before joining the faculty in Erlangen.
2017
Atomic Layer Deposition
By: David C Cameron (Editor)
Publication Year: 2020

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition process renowned for its ability to produce layers with unrivaled control of thickness and composition, conformability to extreme three-dimensional structures, and versatility in the materials it can produce. These range from multi-component compounds to elemental metals and structures with compositions that can be adjusted over the thickness of the film. It has expanded from a small-scale batch process to large scale production, also including continuous processing - known as spatial ALD. It has matured into an industrial technology essential for many areas of materials science and engineering from microelectronics to corrosion protection. Its attributes make it a key technology in studying new materials and structures over an enormous range of applications. This Special Issue contains six research articles and one review article that illustrate the breadth of these applications from energy storage in batteries or supercapacitors to catalysis via x-ray, UV, and visible optics. Publisher ‏ : ‎ Mdpi AG (August 11, 2020) 142 pages.

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition process renowned for its ability to produce layers with unrivaled control of thickness and composition, conformability to extreme three-dimensional structures, and versatility in the materials it can produce. These range from multi-component compounds to elemental metals and structures with compositions that can be adjusted over the thickness of the film. It has expanded from a small-scale batch process to large scale production, also including continuous processing - known as spatial ALD. It has matured into an industrial technology essential for many areas of materials science and engineering from microelectronics to corrosion protection. Its attributes make it a key technology in studying new materials and structures over an enormous range of applications. This Special Issue contains six research articles and one review article that illustrate the breadth of these applications from energy storage in batteries or supercapacitors to catalysis via x-ray, UV, and visible optics. Publisher ‏ : ‎ Mdpi AG (August 11, 2020) 142 pages.
2020
Chemistry of Atomic Layer Deposition
By: Seán Thomas Barry (Author)
Publication Year: 2021

This book will help chemists and non-chemists alike understand the fundamentals of surface chemistry and precursor design, and how these precursors drive the processes of atomic layer deposition, and how the surface-precursor interaction governs atomic layer deposition processes. The underlying principles in atomic layer deposition rely on the chemistry of a precursor with a surface. Publisher ‏ : ‎ De Gruyter; 1st edition (November 8, 2021), 225 pages.

This book will help chemists and non-chemists alike understand the fundamentals of surface chemistry and precursor design, and how these precursors drive the processes of atomic layer deposition, and how the surface-precursor interaction governs atomic layer deposition processes. The underlying principles in atomic layer deposition rely on the chemistry of a precursor with a surface. Publisher ‏ : ‎ De Gruyter; 1st edition (November 8, 2021), 225 pages.
2021
Atomic Layer Deposition Onto Fibers
By: Lucia Romano
Publication Year: 2021

Metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) has recently emerged as a new etching technique capable of fabricating high aspect ratio nano- and microstructures in a few semiconductors substrates-Si, Ge, poly-Si, GaAs, and SiC-and using different catalysts-Ag, Au, Pt, Pd, Cu, Ni, and Rh. Several shapes have been demonstrated with a high anisotropy and feature size in the nanoscale-nanoporous films, nanowires, 3D objects, and trenches, which are useful components of photonic devices, microfluidic devices, bio-medical devices, batteries, Vias, MEMS, X-ray optics, etc. With no limitations of large-areas and low-cost processing, MacEtch can open up new opportunities for several applications where high precision nano- and microfabrication is required. This can make semiconductor manufacturing more accessible to researchers in various fields, and accelerate innovation in electronics, bio-medical engineering, energy, and photonics. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel methodological developments in MacEtch, and its use for various applications. 

Publisher: Mdpi AG (January 13, 2021), Hardcover: 106 pages

Metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) has recently emerged as a new etching technique capable of fabricating high aspect ratio nano- and microstructures in a few semiconductors substrates-Si, Ge, poly-Si, GaAs, and SiC-and using different catalysts-Ag, Au, Pt, Pd, Cu, Ni, and Rh. Several shapes have been demonstrated with a high anisotropy and feature size in the nanoscale-nanoporous films, nanowires, 3D objects, and trenches, which are useful components of photonic devices, microfluidic devices, bio-medical devices, batteries, Vias, MEMS, X-ray optics, etc. With no limitations of large-areas and low-cost processing, MacEtch can open up new opportunities for several applications where high precision nano- and microfabrication is required. This can make semiconductor manufacturing more accessible to researchers in various fields, and accelerate innovation in electronics, bio-medical engineering, energy, and photonics. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel methodological developments in MacEtch, and its use for various applications. Publisher: Mdpi AG (January 13, 2021), Hardcover: 106 pages
2021