ALD Systems

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ATLANT 3D Nanosystems NANOFABRICATOR™ PRO Direct patterned ALD system using micronozzle
Direct patterned ALD system using micronozzle
Empowering material innovation and prototyping with multi-material sequential deposition and unmatched sample versatility levating industrial capabilities. Discover the power of advanced micro- and nano-scale fabrication.Up to 6 Materials simultaneously400 to 50 µm Line WidthSample size up to 200 mmDeposition speed up to 500 mm/sSequential deposition of up to 6 materials. 6 different precursors and 6 different reactants can be loaded at the same time, allowing you to quickly switch between the materials you wish to deposit or test. Samples size up to 200mm. The stage of NANOFABRICATOR™ PRO can accommodate wafers up to 8” and other shapes under 200×200 mm.Rapid deposition. The NANOFABRICATOR™ PRO stage can move up to 500mm/s, with a deposition speed dependent on the sample and process specifications.  DALP® TECHNOLOGY - THE FUTURE OF PRECISION NANOFABRICATION The NANOFABRICATOR™ PRO, ATLANT 3D’s advanced nanofabrication system, is engineered for the future of material innovation. It is a state-of-the-art tool designed for precision and versatility in atomic layer deposition, setting a new benchmark in the field of nanotechnology.The core of the NANOFABRICATOR™ PRO lies in its revolutionary ability to sequentially deposit up to six different materials. This is achieved through a sophisticated system that simultaneously loads six different precursors and reactants, allowing rapid transitions between materials. The platform’s rapid processing speed, up to 500mm/s, combined with a high-resolution DALP® (micro Direct Atomic Layer Processing) system, ensures precise and efficient material deposition.The NANOFABRICATOR™ PRO offers a suite of benefits that transform the way materials are developed and devices are crafted. Whether it’s for cutting-edge research or groundbreaking industrial applications, the NANOFABRICATOR™ PRO opens doors of innovation.Versatility: Accommodates a wide range of materials and sample sizes up to 300×300 mm.Precision: Advanced DALP®technology offers exceptional control over deposition with resolutions up to 400 μm.Efficiency: High-speed deposition capabilities significantly reduce processing time.Adaptability: Manual loading and vacuum holding methods provide flexibility for various research needs.Consistency: Maintains high uniformity in heater temperature crucial for sensitive processes.RAPID, FLEXIBLE, VERSATILE & ATOMICALLY PRECISE PROCESSINGAt the heart of the NANOFABRICATOR™ PRO is the Direct Atomic Layer Processing (DALP®) technology, a breakthrough in nanoscale engineering. This technology allows for atomic-scale precision, enabling the creation of materials and devices with unprecedented accuracy and complexity.It is designed for rapid prototyping and the development of new device structures, offering a wide selection of materials for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) processes. Additionally, its lithography-less single-wafer optimization significantly streamlines the fabrication process, making it an ideal tool for innovative and efficient prototype development in various scientific and industrial fields.DALP® has revolutionized prototyping, turning a traditionally lengthy process into a rapid, precise operation. Key benefits include accelerated development cycles, atomic-level control for complex prototypes, versatile material and surface adaptability, and cost reductions due to increased efficiency. This advancement in DALP® fosters a conducive environment for innovative microdevice fabrication, marking a significant leap in microfabrication technology.
Swiss Cluster SC Optima Large Batch ALD Equipment for multiple 3D objects
Large Batch ALD Equipment for multiple 3D objects
The SC OPTIMA is an advanced large ALD batch system. With a carefully optimized design, the SC OPTIMA is revolutionizing high-quality and uniform coatings on 3D objects in record time. Experience a new level of precision and efficiency in 3D part coating with the new patent-pending chamber from Swiss Cluster. The innovative and scalable chamber has been optimally designed to adapt to different types and sizes of 3D parts and coating materials to deliver exceptional coating homogeneity at unparalleled process speeds to increase the throughput to new levels. Our single chamber approach makes it easy to load and unload 3D parts and allows for ultra-fast heating and cooling of both the chamber walls and the parts themselves. Multiple wafers or 3D parts used for decorative coatings, watch parts, medical parts, and vacuum components. Key Features: ✅ Patent-pending chamber for exceptional coating homogeneity ✅ Flexibility to adapt to different sizes of 3D parts and coating materials to maximize process times and throughput ✅ Streamlined door-to-door processes, from loading to unloading ✅ Easy cleanroom access ✅ Rapid heating and cooling of chamber walls and parts ✅ Complete control through flexible machine control and recipe creation software.
Accelerate Advanced Material Innovation with NANOFABRICATOR™ LITE - ATLANT 3D
Direct patterned ALD coating system using micronozzle
ATLANT 3D's technology involves the sequential deposition of gases for direct patterning of various coating materials. It uses a micronozzle that sequentially ejects reactive vapors over a moving substrate. So far the following materials have been tested: TiO2, Pt, ZnO, SiO2.Discover the most versatile & powerful tool ever created to accelerate advanced material innovation, rapid process testing & device development with atomic precision.​​ Experience the unprecedented flexibility & material versatility!We enable on-demand next-generation microdevices printing on simple and complex surfaces atom-by-atom. The NANOFABRICATOR™ LITE is the most compact tool ever created to accelerate materials, processes and device innovation with atomic precision. It is suitable for a wide range of applications such as MEMS, devices, optics, photonics, packaging, RF & electronics and quantum devices which can be developed with ATLANT 3D technology with previously impossible functionality and speed at a fraction of a cost.Unique ATLANT 3D's technology allowsDirect patterned ALD coating using micronozzleRapid atomic layer prototyping and manufacturingHighly selective atomic layer patterningExcellent 2D/3D conformal deposition on simple and complex surfacesCombining multiple materials with excellent compatibilityExcellent pattern adhesion to almost any surfacesDigital and atomically precise control over the printing processWith possibility to apply up to 450 different commercially available materials4 different precursors and 4 different reactants can be loaded at the same time, allowing you to quickly switch between the materials you wish to deposit or test.DALP®. ATLANT 3D’s Microreactor Direct Atomic Layer Processing technology offers maskless process flexibility and unparalleled prototyping speed – reducing the time ofdesign iterations, resource dependencies and overall cost of innovation. Multi-material. Enabling multi-material deposition in one process, tested on a wide range of advanced materials, independent of surface roughness and substrate sensitivity with multi-shape deposition and a high degree of thickness control. NANOFABRICATOR™ LITE. Suitable for a wide range of applications such as MEMS and sensors, optics, photonics, advanced packaging, microelectronics as wellas emerging applications. Designed as a compact and versatile tool to seamlessly integrate into your lab infrastructure.FeaturesLINE WIDTH: 400 µm now, 25 µm in development, 1 µm long term goalTEMPERATURE: Operates in a temperature range from room temperature (RT) up to 300°CPROCESS SPEED: Variable from 0.1 mm/s up to 100 mm/s (based on sample and process specifications)VERSATILE MATERIALS PLATFORM: Possible to process several materials sequentially out of 150* possible.ENVIRONMENT: Open atmospheric conditions or within controlled ambient environmentsHYBRID PROCESSING: Direct additive and subtractive processingSELECTIVE AREA DEPOSITION: Path-defined processing for targeted deposition of materialsSURFACE GEOMETRY: Conformal deposition on any type of surface with corrugation up to 25 µmMULTIMATERIAL STACK PRINTING: Multiple materials can be deposited sequentiallyCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL: Growth High quality material depositionSELECTIVE NANOPARTICLE DEPOSITION: Tested with platinum (Pt) processesHOLLOW MICROSTRUCTURING: Post process hollow structure development
Beneq R2 Research ALD system
Research ALD system
The Beneq R2 is Beneq's most affordable premium research reactor with sticker price of 130,000 EUR. This tool is compact, scalable and ergonomically designed to be the perfect way to start your ALD journey.  VALUE: Beneq R2 has all the components of a premium ALD reactor packed into an affordable and approachable tool. With upscale features like a dual chamber design, R2 provides the best value for an ALD starterpack.SIMPLICITY: The R2 is standardized to provide users with a straightforward and pragmatic tool ready to be used out of the box. All main components and electrical box are included in the tool frame, giving it a small, unassuming footprint. UPGRADABLE: The modular design of the R2 allows for quick upgrades and easy maintenance, including a 3D chamber and plasma options, for when your ALD needs change. Options include: Single wafer, batch, and plasma chambersOzone cabinet and extra gas linesSet of 2 hot sources with either vapor draw or loadand-release dosing 
Swiss Cluster SC-1 vertically integrated ALD and PVD system
vertically integrated ALD and PVD system
The first off-the-shelf vertical cluster equipment combining ALD and PVD deposition techniques in a compact, modular, and fully automated system.The flagship deposition system combines an Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) chamber at the top and a Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) chamber at the bottom. The chambers are divided by a gate valve that is closed when performing ALD and opens to run a PVD process without the need to move the substrate or ever breaking vacuum. This patent‑pending innovative vertical chamber arrangement forgoes the need for transfer arms and antechambers, avoiding the pitfalls that make the traditional cluster equipment bulky, slow, expensive, and prone to handling failures. The system is designed to be completely modular and upgradeable. The ALD and PVD chambers can be installed as stand-alone chambers or used together as a cluster deposition system. The ALD can also be used as a load‑lock, enabling fast substrate exchange and maintaining base vacuum. The SC‑1 can be further modified and customized to fit your requirements. The SC‑1 can fabricate n number of multinanolayers of multiple material systems from the PVD and ALD/CVD materials library with our easy‑to‑use hardware and software. Take control of your components with our Machine Control software, and create fully automated processes with our Recipe Creator tool. Standard recipes are ready to use for easy operation, and one can easily create new and/or modify recipes at any point.  Add new gas lines, valves, and mass flow controllers; customize flanges and feedthroughs; exchange substrate holders; incorporate microwave plasma sources for PE-ALD and reactive sputtering, or add in situ metrology equipment. The SC‑1 series is extremely flexible to incorporate new hardware and be integrated into our software for manual control and recipe creation. Control your process and research with an innovative, flexible, and user-friendly system. Materials Factory with the benefits of ALD and PVD Multinanolayered Materials: Hundreds of nanolayers from various material systems from the PVD and ALD materials library can be synthesized. The combination of ALD and PVD layers creates a unique microstructure with tailored properties to fit in your desired application. Combinatorial Approach: The ALD‑PVD microstructure can be further tailored with different film thicknesses along the cross–section with different deposition temperatures across the substrate using our Temperature Gradient Stage (TGS). Modularity to customize and upgrade Expandable: The ALD and PVD chambers can be acquired and operated individually and then be upgraded to a cluster system. New devices or in situ metrology equipment can be added and incorporated to the hardware and software. Compact: By reducing the need of antechambers and mechanical arms, we reduce the complexity and footprint required in the lab. Fast to accelerate R & D Automated: The system is fully automated; all the devices and components are connected to our easy to use software. Hundreds of ALD and PVD multinanolayers can be fabricated with the push of a button. Smart R & D: The TGS allows to screen a temperature window to scan precursors, growth rates, crystal structure, chemical composition, mechanical behavior and more in a single deposition. User‑friendly to beginner and advanced users Recipe Creator: With our easy to use Recipe Creator, complex recipes can be made easy with different parameters in both ALD and PVD process during the deposition. Incorporate your devices or homemade systems and control it with our software. Low Maintenance: The easy attachable/detachable panels makes this equipment extremely easy to replace, clean and service the parts. 
Beneq Genesis ALD Vacuum spatial roll to roll ALD system
Vacuum spatial roll to roll ALD system
The Genesis ALD is ideal for coating any roll-format substrates, and for multiple functional applications.Passivation of cathodes and anodes for various types of lithium-ion and solid-state batteriesConductive layers and encapsulation for flexible solar cellsMoisture barriers for flexible electronicsAdditional contentBrochure of the Genesis ALD can be found here.Additional video about the Genesis ALD can be found here.Learn more about the science of spatial ALD here.
Beneq C2R Vacuum Spatial ALD system
Vacuum Spatial ALD system
The Beneq C2R is a cluster-compatible vacuum spatial ALD (V-SALD) tool equipped with a continuous rotary mechanism and robust plasma-enhancement. With rotation speeds up to 200 rpm and in-situ optical broadband monitoring (BBM), C2R is the perfect production tool for high throughput optical coatings with tailored plasma ALD processes. Optical coatings often require micrometer thick layer, making spatial ALD speeds particularly useful.Technical highlightsVacuum spatial ALD (V-SALD) toolUltra-high deposition rates, up to several micrometers per hourRotary Batch Plasma Enhanced PEALD process for up to 7 pcs of 200 mm wafersFor lenses and other 3D substrates with thickness up to 30 mmHigh film thickness uniformity, suitable for demanding optical coating applicationsCan be equipped with a load lock or  (cluster tool) wafer automation.Typical uniformity <2 % over the batchTypical materials SiO2, TiO2, Ta2O5, Al2O3Typical substratesWafers, up to 200 mmMirrorsHigh curvature lensesAdditional contentBrochure of the C2R can be found here.Additional video about the TFS-200 can be found here.Learn more about the science of spatial ALD here.
Beneq TFS 500 R&D Batch ALD System
R&D Batch ALD System
The TFS 500 is ideal for diverse use in thin film coating applications. Being the first Beneq reactor model, has proven its case as a versatile tool for both in-depth ALD research and robust batch processing. The TFS 500 is an ideal tool for multi-project environments.The TFS 500 can handle several types of substrates; wafers, planar objects, particles and porous bulk materials, as well as complex 3D objects with high aspect ratio features. It can further be equipped with a manually operated load lock for increased wafer processing capabilities. Different types of reaction chambers can easily be fitted inside the vacuum chamber, which in turn enables optimizing each reaction chamber for each customer application.A list of open access scientific publications where the Beneq TFS 500 was used, can be found here.
Beneq P1500 Batch Production Equipment
Batch Production Equipment
The Beneq P1500 is the world’s largest ALD reactor. With a vacuum chamber width of 1.7 meters, this tool is uniquely designed to coat very wide area substrates and large batches of 3D components. As the latest innovation in Beneq’s P-Series, the P1500 continues to enable ALD on the biggest scale with viable high-volume manufacturing solutions.The P1500 is used for optical coatings on large diameter substrates, anticorrosive coatings of semiconductor equipment parts, and various applications where ALD is used on glass or metal sheets.
Beneq P800 Production Equipment
Batch Production ALD system
The Beneq P800 is specifically designed to coat big parts of complex shapes or large batches of smaller parts. Our customers use the P800 for optical coatings, anticorrosive coatings of semiconductor equipment parts, and various applications where ALD is used on glass or metal sheets. Perfect for industrial manufacturing. Boasting a vacuum chamber with a diameter of 800 mm, this tool provides ample space for high volume coating production while still providing excellent batch uniformity. It is ideal for depositing thick optical coatings and etch-resistant barrier films.Additional contentBrochure of the P800 can be found here.Additional videos about the P800 can be found here and here.
Beneq P400A Batch Production Equipment
Batch Production Equipment
The Beneq P400A is built specifically to coat different types of substrates in an optimized batch size – large enough to offer significant capacity, but small enough to maintain excellent uniformity within batches and short cycle times. Our customers use the P400A for optical coatings and applications where ALD is used on glass or metal sheets. The Beneq P400A is a highly optimized, production-proven batch ALD system for high volume manufacturing of optical coatings and moisture barriers. P400A is large enough to offer significant capacity, but small enough to maintain excellent uniformity within batches and short cycle times.
Beneq Prodigy™ Semiconductor Production Tool
200 mm Semiconductor Wafer Batch Production Tool
Beneq Prodigy™ is the ideal manufacturing solution for VCSEL, LED and MEMS manufacturers and foundries looking to enhance the device performance and reliability through an affordable stand-alone ALD batch tool. Beneq Prodigy provides best-of-breed passivation and/or encapsulation films across multiple wafer types and sizes. Prodigy is a simple, yet elegant, solution for enhancing device performance on 75–200 mm wafers with a low-cost batch tool with the latest ALD technology.Prodigy offers pure simplicity through an automated loader with horizontal wafer handling and easy maintenance & serviceability with easy side access.
Beneq Transform® Cluster Tool
200 mm single wafer plasma ALD & 200 mm batch thermal ALD cluster system
Thermal and Plasma ALD systems connected in one cluster system. Single wafer or batch processing. Widest range of high-performance oxides and nitrides. Maximize your options for flexible volume production. With its flexible automation platform and unique capability to combine both thermal batch and plasma enhanced ALD process modules in one integrated system, Beneq Transform® offers unparalleled flexibility in how processing sequences can be realized to meet the most demanding thin-film deposition requirements.Beneq Transform® establishes a completely new class of ALD cluster tool products in it’s versatility and adaptability to address a broad range of applications and market segments. The Beneq Transform® is a one-stop ALD solution for Power Electronics, MEMS and Sensors, RF, LED, Photonics, and Advanced Packaging applications and other More than Moore applications. Beneq Transform® configured with multiple ALD process modules to meet a specific wafer capacity requirement or be later upgraded in response to growing volumes or with new ALD applications.The Transform 200 cluster consists of:Brooks transfer module200 mm thermal batch ALD reactor2 units of 200 mm single wafer plasma ALD reactorsBatch wafer heater moduleBrooks transfer moduleThe Transform 200 Lite cluster consists of:Brooks transfer module200 mm thermal batch ALD reactor200 mm single wafer reactorBatch wafer heater moduleBrooks transfer moduleAdditional contentBrochure of the Transform can be found here.Additional video about the Transform can be found here.Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) equipment percolates into serial production of More-than-Moore devices, a conversation  with Yole Développement. 
Beneq Transform 300 Cluster Tool
300 mm single wafer plasma and 300 mm batch thermal ALD cluster system
Thermal and Plasma ALD systems connected in one cluster system. Single wafer or batch processing. Widest range of high-performance oxides and nitrides. Maximize your options for flexible volume production. With its flexible automation platform and unique capability to combine both thermal batch and plasma enhanced ALD process modules in one integrated system, Beneq Transform® offers unparalleled flexibility in how processing sequences can be realized to meet the most demanding thin-film deposition requirements.Beneq Transform® 300 is the only 300 mm ALD cluster tool combining thermal ALD (batch) and plasma ALD (single wafer) technologies to provide a highly versatile solution to IDMs and foundries. Transform® 300 is dedicated to a broad range of advanced thin-film applications from gate dielectric to anti-reflection coating, final passivation or encapsulation and beyond.Transform 300 consists of:2 units of single 300 mm wafer plasma ALD reactor Batch 300 mm wafer thermal ALD reactorBatch 300 mm wafer preheater moduleBrooks transfer moduleAdditional contentBrochure of the Transform can be found here.Additional video about the Transform can be found here.
ForgeNano HELIOS Object Coating
Object Coating
Commercial ScaleThe HELIOS industrial line offers cost-effective ALD coatings on parts ranging from microns to meters. HELIOS coating systems bring film quality, atomic-level control and conformal performance of ALD to industrial manufacturing, opening up new possibilities and enabling novel applications as protective of functional surface engineered objects. HELIOS is designed for efficiency with ‘zero-waste’ processing, substantially lower factory power consumption and small footprint. A patented integrated abatement ensures minimal maintenance and exceeds uptime records of legacy CVD and PVD equipment.
ForgeNano CIRCE Particle coating
Particle coating
Commercial scaleThe CIRCE system is designed to coat each particle with unrivaled thickness and conformity control, without aggregating particles. CIRCE is designed for your product specifications to optimize reliability and performance. The Continuous Vibrating System lets you maximize production capacity with a compact footprint.
ForgeNano MORPHEUS Particle coating
Particle coating
Commercial scale (Sub-Nanoscale at Kiloton volume)Morpheus bridges the gap from small-scale to commercial-scale. MORPHEUS Semi-Continuous Reactor Systems are designed for commercial Atomic Layer Deposition at scale. Configurable and customizable to nearly any application or footprint. Only Forge Nano can make PALD this simple and this scalable.
ForgeNano LITHOS Particle coating
Particle coating
Commercial Scale (medium to large)LITHOS Rotary Blender Reactor System combines industry expertise in rotary particle handling with a deep understanding of ALD, resulting in an easy-to-use, flexible, and reliable production system. LITHOS is designed to coat each particle with unrivaled thickness and conformity control, while minimizing or eliminating particle agglomeration. 
ForgeNano PROMETHEUS Powder coating
Powder coating
R&D/Pilot ScalePrometheus accelerates the understanding of Atomic Layer Deposition and develops its commercial applications. Prometheus is a lab-scale atomic layer deposition tool, built with scaleability in mind, with multiple reactor sizes available, batch size is adjustable
Encapsulix Infinity M500 Manually Loaded Tool
Manually Loaded Tool
The Encapsulix Infinity M500D is a versatile product family for extremely fast sheet-to-sheet low temperature, deposition in pilot manufacturing and advanced R&D. Typical applications are OLED (lighting and displays) , LED , photovoltaics ( Perovskite and organic PV, passivation layers on silicon PV), batteries and ultracapacitors as well as flexible electronics and advanced optical coatings. Substrate handling can be adapted easily to accommodate a variety of substrates such as Gen 2.5 FPD glass ( 400mm x 500 mm) or multisubstrate cassettes for Silicon PV cells. Substrate loading can be either manual or automated with interfacing to a robot in a glovebox. The Infinity product family is based on Encapsulix Parallel Precursor Wave™ (PPW) reactor architecture, which allows for extremely fast deposition, even at low temperature. For example, in the case of OLED encapsulation by Al2O3 at 80°C, the cycle time is less than one second. All tools of the family use the same core technology subsystems. Thus, process transfer between R&D on smaller substrates and manufacturing on larger substrates is smooth and hassle free.  Modular zero-dead-volume ALD valves allow for ultrarapid change between metal precursors (less than 1 second). Hence, the tool is extremely well suited for the deposition of multilayers and nanolaminates. The tool is highly configurable with a large number of options ( see below).The control system uses the Encapsulix UCS architecture, the core of which is a real time controller with state machine and OPC-UA dataserver. Recipe files are text based on an open syntax format, allowing for off-line recipe creation and remote process support. The tool has extensive real time and delayed data logging and monitoring capabilities. A list of scientific publications where the Encapsulix has been used can be found here.
Beneq TFS 200 R&D wafer, 3D and powder coating tool
R&D wafer, 3D and powder coating tool
ALD research equipment that grows with you. Beneq TFS 200 is the most flexible ALD research platform ever designed for academic research and corporate R&D. Beneq TFS 200 has specifically been designed to minimize any cross contamination that could happen in a multi-user research environment. The large number of available options and upgrades means that your Beneq TFS 200 will grow with you to meet even the most demanding research requirements. Beneq TFS 200 represents technical solutions that enable deposition of superior quality coatings on wafers, planar objects, porous bulk materials and complex 3D objects with very high aspect ratio (HAR) features. Direct and remote plasma-enhanced deposition (PEALD) is available in Beneq TFS 200 as a standard option. The plasma is capacitively-coupled (CCP), which is the industry standard today. The CCP plasma option offers both direct and remote plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) for substrates up to 200mm, face-up or face-down.Process cycle time customarily less than 2 seconds. In specific cases even less than 1 secondHigh Aspect Ratio (HAR) available for structures with vias and porous substratesCold-wall vacuum chamber for rapid heating and coolingAuxiliary entry ports in vacuum chamber enable plasma, in situ diagnostics etc.Load lock available for rapid substrate change and integration with other equipment.A list of open acces scientific publications where the Beneq TFS 200 has been used can be found here.
ForgeNano THEIA Wafer and object coating
Wafer and object coating
THEIA delivers ultra fast deposition with Forge Nano’s patented SMFD-ALD™ in a low cost system for R&D budgets. Sub-second ALD cycle times allow efficient and rapid exploration of applications requiring thick films. Covering challenging patterned substrates such as advanced-generation DRAM device wafers, membranes, sensors, electron multipliers, etc. with aspect ratios up to 1,000. The flexible chamber design allows for both; round up to 200 mm substrate chuck that fits semiconductor wafers, or square parts carrying tray that better accommodates panels or randomly shaped parts.
ForgeNano PANDORA Powder coating
Powder coating
R&D scalePANDORA makes Particle Atomic Layer Deposition faster, more affordable, and more convenient than anything else on the market today. This instrument comes ready to run out of the box and ensures worry-free, reliable operation, day in and day out.
ForgeNano APOLLO Wafer and object coating
Wafer and object coating
Commercial Scale APOLLO provides fully automatic cassette-to-cassette ALD processes with high throughput performance at the lowest cost of ownership. APOLLO leads in every aspect of ALD productivity, performance, cost, and sets a new standard for efficiency while reducing environmental impact. With its ‘zero-waste’ processing, APOLLO lowers factory power consumption and occupies a smaller footprint on the clean-room floor.
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